Blog 9 from Outer Space

Recently, I've been thinking about ways to unify my micro blog entries with my current site, and I've been reconsidering the ideas from IndieWeb: unlike ActivityPub (the protocol Mastodon, Pleroma and the likes use for federation), which seems to want everything be done dynamically via server APIs and JSON responses, the various standards recommended by the IndieWeb community allows machine readable feed to be generated straight from a static HTML file correctly marked-up. A core idea that IndieWeb seem to implicitly rely on is the lifetime of the URIs, and to a greater extent, site owner's control over the domain name. Withe the recent drama regarding the .ORG domain, I came to realize that a future in which domain names are too expensive to maintain (or are subject to seizures by various entities) may not actually be too distant, and this could seriously undermine the entire premise IndieWeb is built upon, not to mention the a lot more common link rots. Fortunately, I think the IPFS (InterPlanetary File System) has the potential to solve both problems.

A Crash Course on IPFS

Now, now, I know when compared similar projects like the Dat protocol, pingfs, or even Scruttlebutt, IPFS has a really buzz-wordy vibe (trust me, I was as skeptical as you are at the beginning) to it, and the various cryptocurrency start-ups that bundle IPFS and all kinds of acronyms in their marketing materials surely doesn't do it any favors, but it does seem like the most established and ready-to-use. Here's my best attempt at explaining IPFS, with information mostly obtained from the official documentation and this talk. In case you are interested in further implementation details, this session from IPFS Camp 2019 is a great starting point.

A simplified interpretation of link to an web page is but a fancy way to point to a file on some server. Just like path to a file, the link would be unreachable if the server is down, even if someone sitting in the same room might have the contents cached. In IPFS, files (or data blocks) are addressed by corresponding cryptographic hashes of their contents, and stored in a distributed fashion across all peers. This means no centralized facility is required to access the files, file integrity can be easily verified, P2P sharing can be used to speed up access, and files stored this way are inherently immutable.

Not being able to change files seems like a rather large price to pay, but just like any other problem in computer science, this can be solved by adding a layer of abstraction. IPNS (InterPlanetary Name System) utilizes public-key cryptography to create immutable addresses that can point to different files. An IPNS address is basically the hash of a public key. An IPNS lookup would involve retrieval of the public key, searching for files (each containing an IPFS address) signed by the corresponding private keys, identifying the most recent one, and finally redirecting to the correct file. To utilize IPNS, the user would start by creating a public-private key pair, followed by uploading desired files into IPNS, and sign and upload a pointer file containing IPFS address to the uploaded content. When an update is desired, the user only need to sign and upload another pointer file to the new location.

A lot of ideas used in IPFS has been explored before by projects like BitTorrent (peer-to-peer sharing), Fossil and Venti from Plan9 (write-once data blocks and path redirection), git (Merkle tree/directed acyclic graph), etc. However, the killer feature is how easily IPFS integrates with existing infrastructure. Not only are there HTTP gateways that allows for accessing IPFS/IPNS from web browsers instead of IPFS clients, but also compatibility with FUSE (Filesystem in Userspace), which actually allows you to mount the entire IPFS as a read-only partition: sure this also makes hosting static websites possible, but you have to admit that having access to a global-scale (or should I say, interplanetary?) P2P shared drive is way cooler.

Hosting Static Websites on IPFS

The official guide already outlines the general usage pattern pretty well. Here's the TLDR:

Once this is done, you can access your website at either <gatway-address>/ipfs/<website-root-hash> or <gatway-address>/ipns/<ipns-address> from any HTTP gateway: you can use the local one (likely at started by the IPFS daemon, or any of the public ones (comes with extra risk of MITM attacks from the gateway owners as file retrieval is done on the gateway servers). In case you have multiple websites, you can generate more IPNS key pairs using ipns key gen, and specify --key when running ipfs name publish to a specific IPNS address.

Before IPFS supports import/export of the IPNS keys though (so that we can backup keys and publish from multiple devices), DNSLink can be used to more conveniently maintain access to a site, albeit at the cost of depending on owning a domain name and trusting the DNS host provider. To allow access to the site from the gateways via /ipns/<domain-name>, simply add a TXT record to the domain:




For instance, you can now access this site using at /ipns/ (this is a link using the gateway). While not flawless, to me this is a reasonable compromise for now. I find find IPFS to be generally faster than IPNS, so using IPFS address with DNSLink probably makes more sense. To avoid manually copy-pasting the IPFS address each time, I added to my blog build script the following to automatically upload website to IPFS and update DNS record (using DigitalOcean's API):

echo "Uploading to IPFS..."
hash=$(/usr/bin/ipfs add -Qr "<website-root>")

echo "Updating DNSLink record..."
curl -X PUT \
     -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
     -H "Authorization: Bearer $token" \
     -d "{\"data\":\"dnslink=/ipfs/$hash\"}" \

Record ID for DNS records on DigitalOcean can also be retrieved via their API. You may need to add ?page=2 or later to the request to find the record you want.

Do note that like using any offline HTML files, we need to use relative URLs in the generated web pages. In Hugo, this can be achieved by setting

relativeURLs = true

in config.toml.

Of course, being a P2P network, IPFS won't be able to retrieve the files if there is no copy to work with at all. By default, IPFS client would pin anything you shared from the local machine: pinned contents won't get deleted, ensuring at least one copy of the shared content is available on IPFS. You can unpin outdated versions of the website, or if you want, find and pin the shared directory on multiple machines for some redundancy.

The Stars, Like Dust

Back to the issue with IndieWeb: the increasingly shady domain name system and link rots makes URI stability in HTTP hard to maintain. However, what if we use IPFS/IPNS addresses as URIs? It's a match made in heaven: we get robust distributed access to static web pages, gated by Mathematics instead of FBI warnings, that can theoretically last forever. Removing the need for maintaining a server also lowers the barrier of entry of owning a website. The HTTP protocol has existed for 29 years, and IPFS, only 5. I don't know if IPFS will continue to exist for the next 24 years to come, but if it does, I hope we will be looking at a perhaps more chaotic, but more robust, lively, and colorful, online world.


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